Typical applications of XRF fluorescence include:
The X-ray fluorescence technique allows to distinguish the different types of steel, as shown in the table below, which refers to the measurements made on samples of some of the most common types of stainless steels.
Referring only to the main constituents of the alloy, it is in fact possible to uniquely determine the type of material, and this may be useful, for example, for the rapid and non-destructive control of the raw materials.
|Name||Cr (%)||Ni (%)||Mn (%)||Mo (%)|
|Reference Value||18,00 - 20,00||8,00 - 21,0||< 2,0||-|
|Reference Value||19,00 - 21,0||10,0 - 12,0||< 2,0||-|
|Reference Value||24,0 - 26,0||19,0 - 22,0||< 2,0||-|
|Reference Value||16,0 - 18,0||10,0 - 14,0||< 2,0||2,0 - 3,0|
The measurements in the table below refer to some measurements made on precious metal alloys, having the typical compositions used in the jewelery sector. X-ray fluorescence allows to quickly verify whether the legal title on the product corresponds to the actual one, providing information on the overall composition of the alloy and on the presence of chemical elements such as nickel, which in direct and prolonged contact with the skin may cause sensitization to the element itself, skin irritations, redness and dermatitis.
|Cu (%)||Ag (%)||Au (%)||Zn (%)||Ni (%)|
|Au 18 Kt (Au 75 Cu10 Ag15)||9,87||15,22||74,91|
|Au a4 Kt||25,5||59,98||7,14||7,63|
Many artifacts destined to different industry sectors (eg water fittings, fashion accessories, handles, automotive, trinkets, jewelry etc.) are made of materials such as brass, aluminum or steel, and then coated by galvanic deposition of metal coatings for protection and/or decorative purpose.
Typical systems of this type are:
● Single portions of Zn, Ni, Cr, Cu, Ag, Au, Sn, ecc.
● Double portion such as Cr/Ni on Cu or brass;
● Binary alloys, such as NiPd on brass;
● Ternary alloys, such as AuCdCu on Ni;
● Ternary alloys, such as Cr/Ni/Cu on plastic or iron.
The figure below shows some of the typical coatings commonly used in the industrial field.
Typical systems for which the thickness of the coatings is required.